PHP 手册
数组 函数

array_map

(PHP 4 >= 4.0.6, PHP 5)

array_map 将回调函数作用到给定数组的单元上

说明

array array_map ( callback $callback , array $arr1 [, array $... ] )

array_map() 返回一个数组,该数组包含了 arr1 中的所有单元经过 callback 作用过之后的单元。callback 接受的参数数目应该和传递给 array_map() 函数的数组数目一致。

Example #1 array_map() 例子

<?php
function cube($n)
{
    return(
$n $n $n);
}

$a = array(12345);
$b array_map("cube"$a);
print_r($b);
?>

这使得 $b 成为:

Array
(
    [0] => 1
    [1] => 8
    [2] => 27
    [3] => 64
    [4] => 125
)

Example #2 array_map() - 使用更多的数组

<?php
function show_Spanish($n$m)
{
    return(
"The number $n is called $m in Spanish");
}

function 
map_Spanish($n$m)
{
    return(array(
$n => $m));
}

$a = array(12345);
$b = array("uno""dos""tres""cuatro""cinco");

$c array_map("show_Spanish"$a$b);
print_r($c);

$d array_map("map_Spanish"$a $b);
print_r($d);
?>

以上例程会输出:

// printout of $c
Array
(
    [0] => The number 1 is called uno in Spanish
    [1] => The number 2 is called dos in Spanish
    [2] => The number 3 is called tres in Spanish
    [3] => The number 4 is called cuatro in Spanish
    [4] => The number 5 is called cinco in Spanish
)

// printout of $d
Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [1] => uno
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [2] => dos
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [3] => tres
        )

    [3] => Array
        (
            [4] => cuatro
        )

    [4] => Array
        (
            [5] => cinco
        )

)

通常使用了两个或更多数组时,它们的长度应该相同,因为回调函数是平行作用于相应的单元上的。如果数组的长度不同,则最短的一个将被用空的单元扩充。

本函数一个有趣的用法是构造一个数组的数组,这可以很容易的通过用 NULL 作为回调函数名来实现。

Example #3 建立一个数组的数组

<?php
$a 
= array(12345);
$b = array("one""two""three""four""five");
$c = array("uno""dos""tres""cuatro""cinco");

$d array_map(null$a$b$c);
print_r($d);
?>

以上例程会输出:

Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [0] => 1
            [1] => one
            [2] => uno
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [0] => 2
            [1] => two
            [2] => dos
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [0] => 3
            [1] => three
            [2] => tres
        )

    [3] => Array
        (
            [0] => 4
            [1] => four
            [2] => cuatro
        )

    [4] => Array
        (
            [0] => 5
            [1] => five
            [2] => cinco
        )

)

参见 array_filter()array_reduce()array_walk()callback 类型的信息。

参数

callback

Callback function to run for each element in each array.

arr1

An array to run through the callback function.

array

Variable list of array arguments to run through the callback function.

返回值

Returns an array containing all the elements of arr1 after applying the callback function to each one.

范例

Example #4 array_map() example

<?php
function cube($n)
{
    return(
$n $n $n);
}

$a = array(12345);
$b array_map("cube"$a);
print_r($b);
?>

This makes $b have:

Array
(
    [0] => 1
    [1] => 8
    [2] => 27
    [3] => 64
    [4] => 125
)

Example #5 array_map() using a lambda function (as of PHP 5.3.0)

<?php
$func 
= function($value) {
    return 
$value 2;
};

print_r(array_map($funcrange(15)));
?>
Array
(
    [0] => 2
    [1] => 4
    [2] => 6
    [3] => 8
    [4] => 10
)

Example #6 array_map() - using more arrays

<?php
function show_Spanish($n$m)
{
    return(
"The number $n is called $m in Spanish");
}

function 
map_Spanish($n$m)
{
    return(array(
$n => $m));
}

$a = array(12345);
$b = array("uno""dos""tres""cuatro""cinco");

$c array_map("show_Spanish"$a$b);
print_r($c);

$d array_map("map_Spanish"$a $b);
print_r($d);
?>

以上例程会输出:

// printout of $c
Array
(
    [0] => The number 1 is called uno in Spanish
    [1] => The number 2 is called dos in Spanish
    [2] => The number 3 is called tres in Spanish
    [3] => The number 4 is called cuatro in Spanish
    [4] => The number 5 is called cinco in Spanish
)

// printout of $d
Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [1] => uno
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [2] => dos
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [3] => tres
        )

    [3] => Array
        (
            [4] => cuatro
        )

    [4] => Array
        (
            [5] => cinco
        )

)

Usually when using two or more arrays, they should be of equal length because the callback function is applied in parallel to the corresponding elements. If the arrays are of unequal length, the shortest one will be extended with empty elements.

An interesting use of this function is to construct an array of arrays, which can be easily performed by using NULL as the name of the callback function

Example #7 Creating an array of arrays

<?php
$a 
= array(12345);
$b = array("one""two""three""four""five");
$c = array("uno""dos""tres""cuatro""cinco");

$d array_map(null$a$b$c);
print_r($d);
?>

以上例程会输出:

Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [0] => 1
            [1] => one
            [2] => uno
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [0] => 2
            [1] => two
            [2] => dos
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [0] => 3
            [1] => three
            [2] => tres
        )

    [3] => Array
        (
            [0] => 4
            [1] => four
            [2] => cuatro
        )

    [4] => Array
        (
            [0] => 5
            [1] => five
            [2] => cinco
        )

)

If the array argument contains string keys then the returned array will contain string keys if and only if exactly one array is passed. If more than one argument is passed then the returned array always has integer keys.

Example #8 array_map() - with string keys

<?php
$arr 
= array("stringkey" => "value");
function 
cb1($a) {
    return array (
$a);
}
function 
cb2($a$b) {
    return array (
$a$b);
}
var_dump(array_map("cb1"$arr));
var_dump(array_map("cb2"$arr$arr));
var_dump(array_map(null,  $arr));
var_dump(array_map(null$arr$arr));
?>

以上例程会输出:

array(1) {
  ["stringkey"]=>
  array(1) {
    [0]=>
    string(5) "value"
  }
}
array(1) {
  [0]=>
  array(2) {
    [0]=>
    string(5) "value"
    [1]=>
    string(5) "value"
  }
}
array(1) {
  ["stringkey"]=>
  string(5) "value"
}
array(1) {
  [0]=>
  array(2) {
    [0]=>
    string(5) "value"
    [1]=>
    string(5) "value"
  }
}

参见


数组 函数
PHP 手册